Software Development As Text Book Methodologies and Practices

In the Philippe Kruchten’s Frog and Octopus fable, the frog says “…all these projects are the same”. We interpret this to mean not only the common elements of all projects that we learn through our text book understanding of software methodologies (e.g. Scrum, XP, SAFe, Unified Process, Waterfall, etc) and our organizational standard operating procedures. Here we present software development as a set of practices and methodologies such as Scrum, Kanban, and SAFe.

“All Projects Are the Same”

“you know, all these projects are the same; Over time we fill with our work the gap that we find Between the burgeoning product, and our dreamed intent.”

The Frog

The frog, represents nine universal concepts, that are found in some form or another in all software development endeavours.

According to the frog, a software project is:

all the work that people have to accomplish over time to realize in a product some specific intent, at some level of quality, delivering value to the business at a given cost, while resolving many uncertainties and risk.

Software and Practice Descriptions


A Caricature of the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)

This page is derived from a paper published by Philippe Kruchten “The Frog and the Octopus: A Conceptual Model of Software Development” published in the Journal of Systems and Software